Wind energy i.e. the kinetic energy of moving air is a renewable sourc eof energy. Wind energy has been used for centuries, mainly as mechanic energy to push boats, windmills or wind pumps. Thanks to wind turbines with energy generator this energy is transformed into electricity. Wind plants are most usually build on so called farms, which can be located on land, or off of it – in the sea or in river deltas. Wind energy is considered clean, making it doesn’t generate any harmful pollutants.
Wind energy is created thanks to the diffrence of temperatures between two air masses developed by the uneven heating of the surface of Earth. A wind turbine obtains its power by converting the wind into torque, acting on the rotor blades to produce electricity. Eind energy is broadly avaiable and it reduces the emission of greenhouse gases, because it replaces conventional energetics based on fossil fuels.
The variability of the wind does not cause large fluctuations in the operation of energy systems, as long as it does not constitute the dominant share of energy.
The efficiency od wind turbines is highly dependant on thier localisation. The shape of the terrain the turbines are located on has a very high impact on thier efficiency. A flat area covered with grass is a classic example of a uniform roughness area. The wind speed on this area is nearly identical on a selected height. Terrain obstacles (eg. Buildings, rows of trees, single trees) that are in the way of moving air masses cause them to massively slow down and generate a lot of turbulence nearby. The disturbance in the flow caused by the obstacle has an extremely negative impact on the durability and lifetime of the power plant structure, although modern facilities are characterized by high reliability and durability.
Wind is a free and limitless source of energy. However even though it has a very high potential, there’s a limit of how much wind can be transformed into electric energy using a wind turbine. The integration of such source into the electric grid can also be complicated due to its periodic availability.
Even despite the challenges, wind turbines continue to supply electricity to people around the world. By continuously improving wind forecasting methods, improving the grid infrastructure and energy storage systems, wind power can become a reliable source of electricity that will solve the world's energy problems.